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Signing Agent

Usage guide


  • Use secure cloud-based storage for your secrets, such as the Oracle and AWS
  • Use the Signing Agent as a stand-alone service or as a library integrated into your application
  • Approve or reject transactions using the PUT or DELETE requests


The Signing Agent is an agent that can operate as a standalone service (exposing a RESTful API to 3rd party applications), or as a library integrated into an application. We recommend deploying the service on premise, on the customer’s infrastructure. We also recommend that every Signing Agent instance be used to manage a unique agent ID, and that multiple instances be deployed (preferably on different cloud infrastructures) in order to meet a multiple signer threshold such as 2 or 3 out of 5. The Signing Agent uses a dedicated subset of the Qredo Server APIs, called the Partner API, to perform its functions. It can also be used to create a programmable approver service that listens to incoming approval requests over Websockets, and is then able to perform automated custody.

In a nutshell, it works just like the phone app but without the human element. The server acts just like a human approver, which means that it approves all transaction types that move assets to and from a Qredo wallet:

  • transfer - (also transfer out) a transaction between wallets that both reside on the Qredo Network: a L2 to L2 transaction.
  • withdrawal - a transaction where assets in a Qredo wallet move to a wallet outside the Qredo Network (BTC, ETH, etc.): a L2 to L1 transaction).
  • atomic swap - a transfer out transaction where you offer a certain amount of an asset in exchange for a (transfer in) certain amount of another asset. (e.g. exchange 100000000 ETH qweis for 735601 satoshis). Both parties that participate have a transfer out transaction that undergoes custody with their approvers. This transaction type is discussed in more detail in the Atomic swaps section.

Cloud-based storage for secrets

An alternative to storing the signing-agent configuration on-premises in a file, is to use secure cloud-based storage. The following cloud-based solutions are supported.

Oracle Cloud Vault Storage

In the YAML configuration file:

    vault: ocid1.vault....
    secret_encryption_key: ocid1.key....
    compartment: ocid1.tenancy....
    config_secret: signing_agent_config
  • Setup an API key on Oracle Cloud
  • Download the config file for the api key, fill in the correct private key path
  • Either put the file in its default location of ~/.oci/config or put it in a custom location and set env var OCI_CONFIG_FILE to the full path including the filename
  • Create a vault and copy the OCID to the config file for the vault setting
  • Create an encryption key (AES or RSA) in the vault, copy it's OCID to the config secret_encryption_key setting
  • Copy the compartment OCID from the compartment where the vault was created
  • Set a secret name where the signing agent will store its configuration and keys
  • Start the signing agent and register an agent using the API

AWS Cloud Secrets Manager Storage

In order to use AWS for configuration storage, set the storage_type to aws and provide the AWS Region and the name of the Secrets Manager secret. For example, your YAML config should look something like the following:

    region: eu-west-2
    config_secret: signingAgentConfig

The Secrets Manager secret (i.e., signAgentConfig in this example) needs to be setup in advance. To do this, on the AWS console:

  1. Create a KMS customer-managed key to be used to encrypt the Secrets Manager secret
  2. Create the Secrets Manager secret, naming it and including the KMS key from step 1
    • Select Other type of secret
    • Select Plaintext and enter initialise me
    • From the Encryption key drop-down, select the key created in step 1
    • Name the secret and optionally add a description
  3. Update the Signing Agent's configuration file with the AWS region and secret name

Start the Signing Agent and register the agent using the API. (Note: starting the Agent converts the secret's type from plaintext to binary.)

Note: the Signing Agent needs access to AWS credentials in order to use AWS' Secrets Manager. How you do this is dependent on your requirements (for instance, the use of AWS access keys or an AWS credentials file, etc.) but, importantly, if running the Signing Agent in a docker container, the AWS credentials need to be available to the Agent running in the container. This would require passing the AWS credential data to docker at startup. As an example, AWS access keys can be passed as environment variables:


or, if using an AWS credential data contained in a local directory, something like this:

> docker run -v $HOME/.aws:/root/.aws ...

Specifics are best discussed with your cloud services admin department.

Using Signing Agent as a service

As mentioned above, the Signing Agent is a standalone component of the Qredo ecosystem. Everyone who intends to run an Signing Agent must first register it on the Qredo network. Below is a step-by-step explanation of the registration process, which involves the PartnerAPP (e.g. your app), the signing-agent-service (e.g. Signing Agent running on your infrastructure), and QredoBE (e.g. our Qredo back-end).

  1. The PartnerApp triggers the registration process by providing its client name, parther APIKey and Base64PrivateKey to the signing-agent-service.
  2. signing-agent-service generates BLS and EC keys.
  3. The signing-agent-service can now register itself to the partner API on the QredoBE, by sending the client name, BLS, and EC public keys. The QredoBE is returning ClientID, CLientSecret that will be responsible for authentication.
  4. The agentID and a feedURL is returned by the QredoBE to the signing-agent-service. This feed is used by the signing-agent-service to keep a communication channel open with the QredoBE.
  5. The agentID and a feedURL is also passed along to the PartnerApp so that the latter can monitor for new actions that need to be approved in case the service is not configured for auto-approval.

All the data above is currently stored on premises in a file by the signing-agent-service, and since some of it (ClientSecret, EC & BLS private keys) is quite sensitive it needs to be running in a secure environment.

Note: an always up-to-date API documentation can be accessed within the Github repo.

Example: POST /api/v1/register


  "name": "string",
  "APIKey": "string",
  "Base64PrivateKey": "string"

Response (clientRegisterResponse):

  "agentID": "string",
  "feedUrl": "string"

Using Signing Agent as a library

There are times when the Signing Agent benefits from being tightly coupled with an application or a service. In this case, it can be imported as a Go package directly into that application.

An example of the Signing Agent onboarding process using the Signing Agent library in a Go app would look like:

Approving a transaction


  • A Signing Agent service instance has been installed and configured
  • A Signing Agent has been created with the ID agentID


  1. A WebSocket connection to the Qredo BE is opened the said agentID
  2. PartnerAPP is constantly monitoring for new actions to be handled
  3. A new transfer is initiated
  4. The Qredo BE returns the transaction id: tx_id
  5. Shortly after, a new action is received through the WebSocket with action_id equal to the tx_id for the transfer
  6. Initiate new action
  7. The PartnerAPP requests from the Qredo BE details for the action
  8. Qredo BE returns action details including the payload (list of messages)
  9. Sign payload (for the new action)
  10. The PartnerAPP decides to approve the transactions, thus sending the payload to the signing-agent with a PUT request. (DELETE is for reject)

After that sequence, the transaction should be complete.

If you are using the Signing Agent as a library, the is the approval process is the following:

Data models

ClientRegisterFinishRequest {
    accountCode    string
    clientID   string
    clientSecret   string
    id  string
    idDoc  string
ClientRegisterRequest {
    name             string
    apikey           string
    base64privatekey string
SignRequest {
    message_hash_hex    string
VerifyRequest {
    message_hash_hex    string
    signature_hex   string
    signer_id   string
clientRegisterFinishResponse {
    feed_url    string
clientRegisterResponse {
    bls_public_key  string
    ec_public_key   string
    ref_id  string
signResponse {
    signature_hex   string
    signer_id   string